Boeing T-X Headed Toward First Flight

By: Valerie Insinna, November 29, 2016

ORLANDO, Fla. — The Boeing-Saab T-X trainer is on track to fly by the end of the year after completing afterburner engine runs last week, Boeing officials said.

Only a few more major tests remain before the plane makes its inaugural flight, said program manager Ted Torgerson during a Nov. 23 interview ahead of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference (I/ITSEC).

“We are clicking off all of our test points, we have tested around somewhere around nearly 1,200 test points on the jet on ground tests,” he said.

The next test involves putting the plane, engine running, through the motions of a flight — takeoff, climb and landing — with the aircraft tied down to the runway, Torgerson said. The company will also check how the airplane responds to simulated system failures. After that, a Boeing-Saab board will clear the aircraft for flight, and the Federal Aviation Administration will certify it. Finally, the company will conduct low-, medium- and high-speed taxi tests before flying the jet.

“We’re looking to fly soon, before the year is over” Tom Conard, the company’s T-X capture team leader, reiterated during a Tuesday briefing at I/ITSEC. “And as we’re preparing that jet to fly, our flight crews are training in the training system devices to prepare them exactly what they’re going to see in the jet.”

A second Boeing T-X was revealed to the press during a September rollout ceremony shortly before it went through structural proof tests. The company is currently powering all of the systems on the airplane, will fuel the plane in a matter of weeks and plans to move quickly through tests for an early 2017 flight, Togerson said.

The Boeing-Saab team is competing against one other clean-sheet design, manufactured by Northrop Grumman. Two other teams are banking on less risky existing designs. Lockheed Martin has partnered with KAI to offer the T-50A, a version of the Korean company’s T-50 trainer. Raytheon joined with Leonardo and CAE on the T-100, which uses Alenia Aermacchi M-346 as the basis.

If all goes according to schedule, the Boeing-Saab plane will fly around the same time as the US Air Force issues its final request for proposals, which officials have targeted for a December release. The service has already put forward several draft request for proposals, which detail threshold requirements as well as objective requirements that could knock hundreds of millions of dollars off a company’s total evaluated price.

Boeing, for its part, has stressed that its clean-sheet design was tailored specifically for the threshold requirements, and officials have not detailed how close it can get to the objective.

« We’re going to meet all the requirements and growth provisions for the future,” Conard said. « It has no radar, it has no weapons, it is not doing anything except advanced fast jet training. »

Asked whether Boeing plans to incorporate such features for potential opportunities currently under discussion by the Air Force — such as an exercise of light-attack aircraft that could inform a program of record, or a proposal to hire industry to play the aggressor role in training exercises — Conard demurred.

“We’ll look at that after we win T-X,” he said. “We’ve got to win T-X, and then from there we will able to adapt and work in future variants. And I’ll leave it at that.”

Source: defensenews.com

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Turbomeca (groupe Safran) signe un contrat avec Saab AB pour l’Armée de l’Air suédoise

Bordes, le 30 août 2012

Turbomeca (groupe Safran) a signé un contrat avec la société de défense et sécurité Saab AB pour la réparation et la révision des modules et moteurs Arrius 2K2 équipant les hélicoptères A109 LUH de l’Armée de l’Air suédoise.

Le contrat signé avec Saab est un contrat de maintien en condition opérationnelle (Global Support Package, GSP) personnalisé pour les hélicoptères A109 LUH équipés des moteurs Turbomeca Arrius 2K2.

Cet accord couvre 43 moteurs Arrius 2K2 (40 installés sur 20 A109 LUH et trois moteurs de rechange) et les accessoires associés. La formation de techniciens et des rechanges peuvent également être proposés par le biais de cet accord.

Saab est responsable de la maintenance pour l’ensemble des opérations y compris l’entreposage et la gestion de la disponibilité de la flotte (excepté pour la maintenance en ligne et les bases opérant à l’étranger).

Saab dessert le marché international proposant des produits, des services et des solutions leaders dans le monde allant de la défense militaire à la sécurité civile. Saab a des activités et des employés sur tous les continents et se développe constamment, adopte et améliore les nouvelles technologies pour répondre aux besoins évolutifs des clients.

Le Gripen, cet avion qui multiplie les risques

Bernard Wuthrich berne

22 août 2012

La sous-commission estime que l’évaluation a été correcte. Elle énumère cependant des risques techniques, financiers et temporels. Des reproches sont adressés à Ueli Maurer

Gripen, nous ne suspendons pas ton vol, mais cela ne signifie pas que nous n’allons pas te clouer au sol plus tard. Tel est le message délivré hier par la Commission de la politique de sécurité du Conseil national (CPS), qui a publié le très attendu rapport de sa sous-commission sur le remplacement des Tiger.

Par 24 voix sans opposition, la CPS a décidé de transmettre ce rapport à l’ensemble du Conseil fédéral, dont il attend une prise de position d’ici à fin octobre. C’est la date prévue pour la présentation du programme d’armement 2012, dans lequel l’achat des avions de combat sera inclus. Par 16 voix (de droite) contre 9 (de gauche), la commission a renoncé à suspendre le processus d’acquisition jusqu’à ce que les risques identifiés dans le rapport aient été écartés.

Présidée par le conseiller national et pilote Thomas Hurter (UDC/SH), la sous-commission constate en premier lieu que «le processus d’évaluation technique du Gripen a été effectué correctement». Voilà qui écarte d’un coup d’aile les reproches formulés dans une lettre anonyme, dont les auteurs ont été soupçonnés de voler pour le Rafale français concurrent. Le rapport de 36 pages rappelle cependant que le Gripen a été évalué comme le moins performant des trois appareils en compétition, et a obtenu la mention «juste satisfaisant». Le Rafale et l’Eurofighter avaient été mieux notés.

Pour le reste, le document énumère une «liste de risques financiers et techniques et de problèmes de calendrier que le Conseil fédéral devra clarifier d’ici à la publication du programme d’armement», résume Thomas Hurter. Il précise que c’est bien le Conseil fédéral dans son ensemble et pas uniquement le chef du Département de la défense, Ueli Maurer, qui devra prendre position. Un geste de défiance envers le ministre UDC? Ni la présidente de la CPS, Chantal Galladé (PS/ZH), ni Thomas Hurter ne répondent à cette question. Le rapport montre cependant que des défauts de communication sont mis au passif du conseiller fédéral et de son entourage. Ainsi, la sous-commission n’a appris que ce printemps – alors que les responsables le savaient depuis 2009 – que l’appareil que la Suisse comptait acheter était de type E/F et non le modèle précédent C/D. «On nous avait pourtant certifié que le modèle E/F n’entrait pas en ligne de compte», se souvient Thomas Hurter.

Autre reproche adressé à Ueli Maurer: la manière dont la communication s’est faite a laissé penser aux concurrents de Saab Gripen, que c’est «l’avion doté des meilleures qualités techniques qui serait sélectionné» alors qu’on savait déjà que «le prix jouerait un rôle aussi important dans l’offre». La sous-commission reproche encore au conseiller fédéral d’avoir laissé croire aux constructeurs du Rafale et de l’Eurofighter qu’ils pourraient faire une nouvelle offre lors d’une conférence de presse en février. «La communication du Conseil fédéral a péché par manque de clarté et donné lieu à des malentendus», condamne le rapport. Ueli Maurer rejette ce reproche (lire ci-dessous).

La CPS ne recommandant pas l’interruption de l’exercice, elle attend désormais des réponses à ses questions, car le Gripen est l’appareil qui comporte le plus de risques. Ils sont de trois natures. Premièrement, la technique. Des doutes sont émis sur la «capacité opérationnelle» du Gripen E/F, qui n’a pas pu être testé en vol. 98 améliorations techniques ont été demandées et le développement de l’appareil flotte dans un nuage d’incertitudes.

Deuxièmement, le risque financier. Le prix d’achat des 22 appareils a été fixé à 3,126 milliards de francs. Ueli Maurer jure que le budget sera respecté. Thomas Hurter fait cependant remarquer que «les frais de développement du Gripen n’ont fait l’objet d’aucun examen».

Il s’agit notamment de s’assurer que, pour respecter le coût de production prévu, la Suède se dotera de son côté de 60 à 80 avions du même type. Les coûts d’exploitation n’ont pas pu être estimés, souligne-t-il. Et la décision suédoise n’est pas prise.

Or, les deux pays s’observent. Les deux parlements doivent avaliser la décision d’achat des Gripen E/F. Mais la sous-commission n’est pas au clair: elle n’a pas pu déterminer «si c’est la Suisse qui attend un signal de la Suède pour procéder à l’acquisition ou le contraire». Ce doute devra être levé. La première Chambre du parlement suédois doit se prononcer le 20 septembre, l’autre en décembre. La CPS attend par ailleurs de la Suède qu’elle accorde une garantie d’Etat concernant le développement, le coût et la livraison du nouvel appareil.

Il y a enfin les risques du calendrier. La Suisse espérait recevoir son premier engin en 2016. On parle désormais de 2018. Mais la Suède prévoit de son côté 2020 ou 2022. Or, relève Thomas Hurter, on se rapproche doucement du calendrier de remplacement des F/A-18, qui datent des années 90. Ce qui ne serait pas forcément problématique dans la mesure où cela permettrait de rediscuter globalement des besoins réels de l’aviation militaire suisse.

La sous-commission s’est aussi penchée sur les commandes compensatoires que les trois avionneurs se sont engagés à négocier avec les entreprises suisses. Elle constate que le programme de 2,2 milliards de Saab Gripen ne satisfait pas complètement le critère de la répartition régionale. Parce que Ruag et Pilatus se taillent la part du lion: le premier réalisera le montage final du Gripen (un milliard) et le second vendra des avions d’entraînement PC-21 pour 600 millions. De quoi faire grincer dans les PME, notamment romandes.

Les décisions de la CPS ont été accueillies diversement. Le président de la Société suisse des officiers, Denis Froidevaux, se réjouit de voir que «les procédures ont été respectées», contrairement à ce que disaient les dénonciations anonymes. Mais «le Conseil fédéral doit mettre en place une politique de gestion des risques et de communication cohérente», commente-t-il.

Devant le parlement, la partie s’annonce difficile. Le PS et les Verts ont confirmé mardi qu’ils s’opposaient à cet achat, qui menace d’autres investissements dans l’énergie, la formation ou des transports. Les partis de droite soutiennent le remplacement des Tiger, mais pas à n’importe quel prix. Les risques sont qualifiés de «considérables» par le PLR et par le PDC, qui attendent des précisions sur la prise en charge des frais de développement par la Suède. Les critiques du rapport à l’égard d’Ueli Maurer mettent l’UDC dans l’embarras.

Source: Le Temps

Swiss Fighter Jet Purchase to Go Ahead Despite Criticism

Aug. 21, 2012
By AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE

GENEVA, Switzerland — Switzerland is to press ahead with its controversial purchase of 22 Saab Gripen fighter jets despite a highly critical parliamentary report into the deal released on Aug. 21.

The parliamentary security commission found that the “choice of jet made by the Federal Council carries the most risks: technically, commercially, financially and in respect of the delivery date”, Swiss news agency ATS reported.

The members of the commission — appointed by the Swiss parliament’s National Council of representatives — nonetheless voted 16 to 9 against demanding that ministers put a halt to the deal.

Defense minister Ueli Maurer, who is in charge of the dossier, said that negotiations with Sweden were “reaching their conclusion (and) will allow us to resolve any outstanding issues.”

The purchase price — 3.126 billion francs (2.6 million euros, $3.25 billion) — was guaranteed not to change, he said, adding that the Gripen “was the cheapest” option compared with the French Dassault Rafale and the EADS Eurofighter.

Opponents of the Gripen purchase announced that they would seek to hold a national referendum on the deal.

Brazil Delays Fighter Buys

By LUCIANA MAGALHAES

09/08/2012

BRASILIA—Brazil’s defense minister said the economic slowdown has delayed the country’s long-awaited decision to purchase a new generation of fighter jets.

« The project is not being abandoned. There will be a decision in the right time. But, today, I would prefer not to give a date, » Defense Minister Celso Amorim said in an interview. « The economic situation has taken a less-favorable turn than expected and it naturally requires caution. »

The process, which has lasted more than a decade, involves three international contenders: the Gripen NG made by Saab AB of Sweden; the F/A-18 Super Hornet from Boeing Co. of the U.S.; and the Rafale warplane manufactured by Dassault Aviation SA of France.

Brazil’s government sent a letter to the three companies in June asking them to extend their jet proposals until December. According to the government, this is a common practice that typically happens every six months if a decision isn’t reached.

« I am not in conversations with any companies at the moment, which doesn’t exclude the possibility that I might receive somebody here, » Mr. Amorim said.

In 2010, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Nicolas Sarkozy, then presidents of Brazil and France, respectively, issued a joint statement saying Brazil entered into exclusive negotiations involving the Rafales. But the Brazilian government backtracked not long after and said the competition was still wide open. In the end, Mr. da Silva left the decision to his successor, Dilma Rousseff.

« Today, I wouldn’t say any company is [the] favorite, » Mr. Amorim said. « The important question is when we will do it and, then, we will again look into the proposals. There’s a need to re-equip, but it needs to be resolved accordingly with the country’s possibilities. »

Brazil will base its decision on price, quality and access to a jet maker’s technology, but « the specific weight that will be given to each one of these is something that I haven’t had the chance to discuss profoundly, » Mr. Amorim said. « There is no decision, » he added.

The defense minister said a decision earlier this year by the U.S. government to cancel an order of Brazilian-made military training planes wouldn’t weigh against Boeing. In February, the U.S. Air Force canceled an order for Super Tucanos manufactured by Embraer SA of Brazil and reopened the contest, saying top procurement officials weren’t satisfied with the documentation in the bidding.

Donna Hrinak, Boeing’s president in Brazil, said the company is « prepared to wait for the decision of the Brazilian government. » Representatives for Saab and Dassault couldn’t be reached for comment Thursday.

Other defense programs in Brazil are moving ahead, meanwhile, including one to build a nuclear-powered submarine in a joint project with France. Brazil also has purchased 50 new helicopters made locally.

Mr. Amorim is keen to see Brazil invest more in defense.

The ministry’s budget is about 1.5% of gross domestic product, or about 61.76 billion reais ($30.54 billion) in 2011. Ten years ago, spending was far lower, at 25.5 billion reais, but accounted for about 2% of GDP. Mr. Amorim said he wants to return to those levels, which would bring Brazil closer in line with spending in countries such as China, Russia and India.

« This is my goal. It’s not an approved government program. It’s something I consider reasonable to be attained, » he said.

Brazil—which fought the Paraguayan War in the 1860s and was involved in the First and Second World Wars—hasn’t become embroiled in a war in decades. But Mr. Amorim said the country needs a defense system capable of protecting its vast natural resources, which include recent discoveries of huge oil reserves off the country’s southeastern coast. Moreover, water has become a significant asset, he said.

« Today, besides the energy, the oil, or the capacity of producing food, we have a resource that is likely the most sought-after in this 21st century, which is the fresh water, » he said.

The minister said defense spending also can be a powerful way to create and keep jobs during the continuing economic slowdown, and can provide incentives for technological advances.

Source: online.wsj.com (The Wall Street Journal)

Saab revoit le prix de ses Gripen à la baisse

Le 08 février 2012 par Barbara Leblanc

Pour contrer une réévaluation de son offre par Dassault, le groupe suédois estime qu’il peut réviser à la baisse le prix de ses avions de combat qu’il doit livrer à la Suisse.

Le prix sera inférieur à 2,6 milliards d’euros, assure le directeur de Saab pour la Suisse, Anders Carp, cité mercredi par le journal Tages-Anzeiger.
Une manière pour le groupe suédois de répondre à la proposition similaire de l’avionneur français Dassault, grand perdant de l’appel d’offres en décembre dernier. Il porte sur la livraison à la Suisse de 22 exemplaires de l’avion de combat Gripen.

En effet, Dassault avait envoyé un courrier aux députés suisses leur proposant l’acquisition de 18 Rafale pour 2,7 milliards de francs suisses (2,2 milliards d’euros), espérant ainsi faire changer Berne d’avis.

Mais le constructeur suédois propose aussi à la Confédération suisse de signer le contrat pour l’achat de Gripen directement avec le gouvernement suédois, ce qui équivaut à une garantie d’Etat sur le contrat. C’est ce que précise le numéro deux du ministère suédoise de la Défense, Hakan Jevrell, cité par le journal. Ainsi, en cas de problème, les autorités suédoises pourraient venir au secours de Saab et garantir la livraison des appareils.

Le groupe Saab intervient ce jour car la commission parlementaire suisse chargée des questions de défense doit se pencher sur le dossier au plus tôt le 13 février. Le gouvernement suisse doit formellement avaliser l’achat des Gripen en février, avant de transférer le dossier au Parlement qui décidera définitivement à l’été ou l’automne.

Si une contre-offre plus avantageuse venait à se présenter, les députés pourraient néanmoins décider de renvoyer le projet d’acquisition à son début.

Trois candidats étaient en lice pour le nouvel avion de combat de la Suisse: le Rafale du français Dassault, l’Eurofighter du consortium européen EADS et le Gripen du suédois Saab.

Source: L’Usine Nouvelle

Grand Opening of Swedish-Brazilian Centre of Research and Innovation

18 May 2011, in News

Today, 18 May 2011 in São Bernardo de Campo, Brazil, the Swedish – Brazilian centre of research and innovation was officially inaugurated. The official name of the Centre is Centro de Inovação e Pesquisa Sueco-Brasileiro (CISB).

Saab took the initiative to start up the process of a Research and Development centre in Brazil in September 2010, when Håkan Buskhe, Saab’s President and CEO, visited Brazil. The concept of the centre is to gather main stakeholders from the public, academia and industry to tackle key societal challenges with technology. So far the centre has attracted over 40 partners. The partners and organizations involved will be members of the CISB association and sit on the board and its thematic committies to decide on activity focus and projects. They will also be active partners in the specific projects.

The areas of focus for the R&D centre will be in Transport and Logistics, Defence and Security, and Urban development with a focus on energy and the environment. The centre will create small teams of project experts that help the stakeholders to create projects in which the centre will address different R&D challenges.

The inauguration was attended by a large number of dignitaries including Director General Vinnova (Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems) Charlotte Brogren, the President from ABDI Mauro Borges Lemos, the Mayor of Linköping City Ann-Cathrine Hjerdt, the Mayor of Sao Bernado de Campo Luis Marinho and Executive Director of the Research and development centre, CISB, Bruno Rondani.

“Saab guaranteed the start up of the centre and our intent is to invest in a number of projects with Brazilian acedemia and industry. I believe the centre will generate innovations with corresponding business both in Brazil, Sweden and internationally. A few examples of projects that we intend to do in the centre are a coastal survillance radar based on state of the art phased array technology in collaboration with the Brazilian company Atmos and a datalink development project with ION,” says Håkan Buskhe, Saab’s President and CEO.

Saab sees many opportunities in Brazil, not least in the aeronautics sector but also in  civil security, particularly as Brazil is hosting both the FIFA World Cup and Olympic Games within the next few years.

Saab is committed to sharing technology at the highest level with Brazil, to invest in real and lasting partnerships that will provide a technological leap in Brazilian defence and security capabilities.

SAAB Prepares for UK Expansion

24 May 2011, in News

Global defence and security company, Saab AB will open new UK headquarters and draw on British engineering expertise in a new Saab Design Centre in London.

With 200 employees already based throughout the UK, Saab is preparing to expand its reach into the British defence industry by opening a central London office to co-ordinate all in-country operations.

The opening of the company’s new UK headquarters will be followed by the opening of an engineering design centre. The facility will capitalise on the UK’s maritime jet engineering expertise and is scheduled to open in the late Summer.

Initially staffed by approximately 10 British employees, its first project will be to design the carrier-based version of the Gripen new generation multi-role fighter aircraft based on studies completed by Saab in Sweden.

Additionally, Saab is also to centralise its underwater vehicle development and production in the UK. Saab is in the process of merging its military underwater vehicles operations in Sweden with Saab Seaeye, a UK subsidiary based in Fareham, Hampshire, which is the market leader in the design and manufacture of electric remotely operated underwater vehicles for the civilian market.  The move to Fareham integrates all operations to benefit the company’s significant global customer base in the civilian and defence markets.

Saab President & CEO Håkan Buskhe, said: “Saab has a long and successful relationship with the UK, and I believe our expansion will create the conditions for a wider, strategic partnership that will benefit both nations. Today cooperation is vital in the global defence sector and the UK’s requirements and expertise firmly complements our own ambitions and vision.”

Note to Editor

Saab has around 12,500 employees globally with some 200 employees across the United Kingdom, Saab has a long history of providing defence products and services to the UK Armed Forces, including soldiers Combat and Counter-IED training, infantry weapons and the Arthur and Giraffe AMB ground-based radars which help secure the lives of UK troops deployed overseas.

Saab Receives Order from FMV Regarding Development of Existing Gripen System

Defence and security company Saab has received an order from the Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV) regarding development of the existing material system 39 (edition 19). The order amount is 152 MSEK.

The order consists of development work in Gripen C/D, for example enhanced working environment in the cockpit. The work will be carried out in 2011 and 2012.

Saab serves the global market with world-leading products, services and solutions ranging from military defence to civil security. Saab has operations and employees on all continents and constantly develops, adopts and improves new technology to meet customers’ changing needs.

Source: Saab Ab

F-35 deal isn’t perfect but it’s the only one in town

May 8, 2011

By ALEX WILNER and MARCO WYSS

ZURICH — Canadians are missing something in the debate over the purchase of the Joint Strike Fighter, also known as the F-35.

Two unprecedented shifts are rocking the global arms market for fighter jets.

First, there’s a quasi-revolution taking place in fighter jet technology. We are now entering a period dominated by “fifth generation” aircraft, fighters which will have “allaspect” stealth abilities with internal weapons systems, integrated avionics at the pilot’s fingertips, and “supercruise” capabilities that greatly enhance performance.

When it becomes operative, the F-35 will be the most advanced fighter aircraft in the world.

While opponents of the F-35 argue that Canada’s aging CF-18 Hornets can be replaced with fourth (and “fourth-plus”) generation aircraft, they’re missing the broader point. Upgraded fourth generation aircraft —like the F-18 Super Hornet — will be able to fly future combat missions, but that won’t stop them from becoming increasingly obsolete.

It won’t happen overnight, but eventually fourth generation aircraft will go the way of third and second generation aircraft: To the dump.

The F-35 will have a qualitative edge over older aircraft models no matter what the upgrade. The only comparable fighter is the F-22 Raptor, flown by the U.S. Air Force.

But Washington has already phased out the Raptor’s production, having placed all its bets on the F-35. Our allies have gotten the message: Britain, Australia, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey, and Norway will all be flying F-35s by 2020. Israel, Japan and others are likely to follow.

If Canadians want to equip their air force with the best available tools, they need to focus on next generation technology.

There’s little point in looking back. The future rests with fifth, not fourth, generation technology. The risk in spending less today on a souped-up version of the CF-18 is Canada will find itself replacing outdated hardware before long — an expensive proposition.

Second, the fighter-jet industry has become increasingly polarized. The Americans, Russians, and Chinese are tomorrow’s heavyweights. While some Canadians find it suspicious no alternative bids were entertained when selecting the F-35, in reality, there are virtually no competitors.

When a government decides to purchase military hardware from another country, it isn’t only thinking about improving the quality of its armed forces. It’s also thinking about the political and strategic signals it’s sending to others.

The arms trade can be a political minefield. Ideally, Canada will buy its fighters from an ally.

In doing so, we’ll avoid sending an unintended message with our purchase and pre-emptively grease the wheels in the event spare parts are needed during periods of crisis. It’s important, too, that Canada signs off with a manufacturer that will survive over the long haul. That will ease maintenance, upgrades, and future developments. Buy Russian? Chinese? Where does that leave Canada? We could approach the French or the Swedes. Both have sophisticated options in the Rafale and Gripen but, like the Super Hornet, these rely on older technology.

Given the huge investment needed to leap into the next generation, both countries are likely to eventually close shop. It’s possible a European consortium, like the one behind the Eurofighter Typhoon, will emerge in the future, but it’s a long shot.

Several European partners have already invested in the F-35 project, so they won’t be inclined to support another risky venture. Like it or not, the era of the European fighter jet is coming to a close.

That leaves Russia and China. Both countries are developing next generation fighters to rival the F-35. Russia began testing the PAK-FA a year ago, while China unveiled its J-20 in January.

But are Canadians really prepared to fly Russian or Chinese jets into battle?

The political and strategic ramification would be monumental. What would our allies think? What would Moscow and Beijing think? Neither option will do. While the F-35 deal isn’t perfect, it’s the only one in town.

Source : Calgary Sun